Editorial Feature

A Guide to Indoor Mobile Robots

Indoor mobile robots are a fascinating and rapidly evolving branch of robotics designed to operate within indoor environments, carrying out tasks autonomously or with minimal human intervention. These robots are integral to modern automation systems, improving efficiency in healthcare, retail, logistics, and home automation sectors. With advancements in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and sensor technologies, indoor mobile robots have become more sophisticated, versatile, and reliable.

A Guide to Indoor Mobile Robots

Image Credit: Proxima Studio/Shutterstock.com

Evolution of Indoor Mobile Robots

The evolution of indoor mobile robots can be traced back to the 20th century, when initial prototypes were mainly used for research and military purposes. The earliest models were bulky, limited in function, and relied on external guidance systems. However, in the 1960s, Stanford Research Institute introduced mobile platforms like Shakey the Robot, one of the first robots to navigate autonomously using vision and touch sensors.1

During the 1980s and 1990s, computational power and sensor technology advancements led to more practical applications. Robots like the HelpMate, used in hospitals to transport medications, and the automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in warehouses marked the transition from experimental prototypes to commercial applications.1

Moving into the 21st century, the field of indoor mobile robots has grown exponentially in terms of its capabilities, driven by advancements in artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and sensor fusion. Modern robots are outfitted with advanced navigation systems, such as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms. These systems enable robots to simultaneously create and update maps of their surroundings while accurately tracking their location in real-time.1

Furthermore, integrating cloud computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled robots to share data, learn from each other, and improve performance through continuous updates. Innovations in battery technology have also extended operational hours, making robots more practical for long-term tasks.1

The following sections will explore the underlying principles behind these technologies and will subsequently delve into some of their applications, demonstrating how these technological improvements are revolutionizing industries, from manufacturing to healthcare, by enhancing efficiency and enabling more complex and sustained robotic operations.

Principles of Indoor Mobile Robots

Indoor mobile robots are designed to operate autonomously within enclosed spaces, such as homes, offices, and industrial facilities. These robots rely on advanced principles and technologies that enable them to navigate, map, and interact with complex indoor environments. This section delves into the core principles that underpin the functionality of indoor mobile robots, including navigation and mapping, sensor integration, and data processing.

Navigation and Mapping

At the heart of indoor mobile robotics is the principle of autonomous navigation. This involves a robot's ability to independently traverse an environment without human guidance. Central to this capability is the use of sophisticated mapping and localization techniques. Technologies like light detection and ranging (LiDAR), ultrasonic sensors, and stereo-vision cameras are pivotal, providing the necessary data for robots to detect obstacles, recognize landmarks and compute the most efficient routes.1

Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms are particularly vital, offering the dual capabilities of creating a map from an unknown environment and locating the robot within that map. Through SLAM, robots achieve precise navigation within dynamically changing and structurally complex indoor spaces.1

Sensor Integration and Data Processing

In modern robotics, integrating multiple sensors is key to enhancing a robot's environmental perception. This integration fosters a more accurate and dependable navigation system. Additionally, sophisticated data processing algorithms, often powered by artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), play a critical role. They process sensor data in real-time to identify and classify objects, detect obstacles, and anticipate movements. This capability allows robots to make quick, informed decisions, adapt to new challenges, and execute tasks effectively.1

Applications of Indoor Mobile Robots

Indoor mobile robots are transforming various sectors by automating complex tasks and enhancing service efficiency. These intelligent systems adapt to diverse environments, proving essential for mundane and interactive roles alike. Below, we explore their significant contributions across key industries, highlighting how they streamline operations and innovate traditional practices.


Indoor mobile robots have become indispensable in healthcare, particularly in hospitals and eldercare facilities. Robots like TUG and Moxi transport medications, lab samples, and medical supplies, reducing the workload on healthcare professionals and minimizing human error. In addition, telepresence robots enable remote consultations, allowing doctors to interact with patients and staff without being physically present, which has been particularly useful during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.2,3

Retail and Hospitality

The retail and hospitality industries have also made use of indoor mobile robots to enhance customer service and streamline operations. Service robots in hotels can deliver items to guest rooms, provide information, and assist with check-ins and check-outs.

Retail stores use robots for inventory management, shelf scanning, and guiding customers to desired products. For instance, robots like Pepper and NAVii are employed to improve the shopping experience by offering personalized assistance and real-time information.4

Logistics and Warehousing

Indoor mobile robots have significantly transformed logistics and warehousing. AGVs and autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) transport goods within warehouses, sort packages, and manage inventory. These robots increase efficiency, reduce operational costs, and minimize human labor in repetitive and physically demanding tasks. Companies like Amazon and Walmart have extensively deployed robots in their fulfillment centers to handle large volumes of goods with high accuracy and speed.5

Home Automation

Indoor mobile robots have also gained popularity in home automation, undertaking chores like vacuuming, mopping, and lawn mowing. Robots such as Roomba and Braava have transformed home cleaning by offering automated solutions that save time and effort. These robots employ advanced navigation and mapping technologies to clean effectively and navigate around obstacles.1,6

Education and Research

In the realms of education and research, indoor mobile robots serve as valuable tools. They are utilized in academic settings to teach students about robotics, programming, and AI, with educational robots like LEGO Mindstorms and NAO providing hands-on learning experiences that encourage creativity and problem-solving. In research applications, these robots are instrumental in studying human-robot interaction, developing new algorithms, and testing innovative technologies in realistic scenarios.1

Current Challenges

Despite significant advancements, indoor mobile robots encounter several challenges that hinder their widespread adoption and optimal functionality.

One of the most pressing issues is the technical limitations of current robotics technology. Robots often struggle with navigation in dynamic environments, suffer from limited battery life, and depend heavily on robust communication networks. Achieving reliable performance in varied and unstructured indoor settings remains a daunting challenge.7

In environments where close interaction with humans is common, the safety and reliability of these robots are paramount. They must be adept at detecting and avoiding obstacles, recognizing human presence, and safely operating under various conditions. This necessitates advanced sensor systems and robust fail-safe mechanisms to prevent accidents and malfunctions.1,7

The financial aspect of deploying indoor mobile robots poses a significant barrier, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises. The upfront investment, along with ongoing maintenance and upgrades, can be substantial. Making these technologies more affordable and accessible is crucial for their broader adoption.7

As the use of indoor mobile robots increases, so do ethical and social concerns, including potential job displacement, privacy issues, and an over-reliance on automation. These issues demand thorough consideration of the societal impacts and the formulation of appropriate policies and regulations to ensure responsible use of these technologies.1

Latest Research and Developments

Recent research and development in indoor mobile robotics are primarily focused on enhancing robot autonomy, operational efficiency, and interactive capabilities. These advancements are concentrated on refining the technological frameworks and algorithms that support these systems, aiming to ensure more precise and reliable functionalities in complex environments.

One algorithm leverages visual and LiDAR data to create highly detailed and precise indoor maps, effectively handling environments with poor lighting or complex structures. The enhanced SLAM system enables robots to execute tasks with increased precision and reliability.8

In another study published by IEEE, researchers introduced a software architecture designed for real-time human tracking in manufacturing environments. This system utilizes the You Only Look Once (YOLOv8) computer vision model to facilitate human pose estimation and target identification, drawing on 3D information captured by stereo cameras.9

Upon identifying the desired target, the action system orchestrates the robot's movements through the Robot Operating System (ROS). Experimental trials with physical robots have demonstrated the architecture's feasibility and effectiveness in boosting operational efficiency in manufacturing settings.9

Furthermore, a study featured in the journal Machines addressed challenges such as adapting to dynamic environments and managing ambiguous identifications. The researchers developed a service robot equipped with deep learning algorithms for precise small-object recognition, autonomous path planning, and obstacle avoidance capabilities. This robot has exhibited high performance and accuracy in various indoor settings.10

Future Prospects and Conclusion

The future of indoor mobile robots looks promising, with ongoing advancements expected to address current challenges and expand their capabilities. Developments in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and sensor technology are poised to enhance the autonomy, reliability, and safety of these robots. Moreover, emerging technologies such as 5G and edge computing will significantly improve communication and data processing, enabling more efficient and responsive robots.

The integration of robots with smart building systems and the IoT is set to create more intelligent and interconnected environments. In these settings, robots can seamlessly interact with other devices and systems, paving the way for new applications across various sectors, including healthcare, retail, logistics, and home automation.

In conclusion, indoor mobile robots have achieved significant advancements in recent years, driven by both technological progress and a growing demand for automation. Although there are still challenges to overcome, the ongoing evolution of this technology promises to transform industries and enhance everyday life. Moving forward, it is essential to address technical, economic, and ethical considerations to ensure that the development and implementation of indoor mobile robots have a positive impact on society.

References and Further Reading

  1. Raj, Ravi, and Andrzej Kos. (2022). A Comprehensive Study of Mobile Robot: History, Developments, Applications, and Future Research Perspectives. Applied Sciences 12, no. 14: 6951. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146951
  2. Fragapane, G., Hvolby, HH., Sgarbossa, F., Strandhagen, J.O. (2020). Autonomous Mobile Robots in Hospital Logistics. Advances in Production Management Systems. The Path to Digital Transformation and Innovation of Production Management Systems. APMS 2020. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 591. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57993-7_76
  3. Dwivedi, P. K. (2022). Mobile Robots in COVID-19. In Use of AI, Robotics and Modelling tools to fight Covid-19 (pp. 59–78). River Publishershttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003339960-5
  4. Lee, I. (2021). Service Robots: A Systematic Literature Review. Electronics10(21), 2658. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212658
  5. Fragapane, G., de Koster, R., Sgarbossa, F., & Strandhagen, J. O. (2021). Planning and control of autonomous mobile robots for intralogistics. European Journal of Operational Research294(2), 405–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2021.01.019
  6. Elkmann, N., Saenz, J. (2023). Cleaning Automation. In: Nof, S.Y. (eds) Springer Handbook of Automation. Springer Handbooks. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-96729-1_53
  7. Alatise, M. B., & Hancke, G. P. (2020). A Review on Challenges of Autonomous Mobile Robot and Sensor Fusion Methods. IEEE Access8, 39830–39846. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2020.2975643
  8. Ismail, H., Roy, R., Sheu, L.-J., Chieng, W.-H., & Tang, L.-C. (2022). Exploration-Based SLAM (e-SLAM) for the Indoor Mobile Robot Using Lidar. Sensors22(4), 1689. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041689
  9. F. Wang, W. Hutabarat and A. Tiwari, "A Lightweight Target Following Architecture for Indoor Mobile Robot," 2024 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Bristol, United Kingdom, 2024, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIT58233.2024.10540750
  10. Liu, M., Chen, M., Wu, Z., Zhong, B., & Deng, W. (2024). Implementation of Intelligent Indoor Service Robot Based on ROS and Deep Learning. Machines12(4), 256. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12040256

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Ankit Singh

Written by

Ankit Singh

Ankit is a research scholar based in Mumbai, India, specializing in neuronal membrane biophysics. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry and has a keen interest in building scientific instruments. He is also passionate about content writing and can adeptly convey complex concepts. Outside of academia, Ankit enjoys sports, reading books, and exploring documentaries, and has a particular interest in credit cards and finance. He also finds relaxation and inspiration in music, especially songs and ghazals.


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